The couple were married in a traditional Catholic ceremony in the gothic-style sandstone Cardinal Cerretti Chapel on the grounds of the former St Patrick's Seminary.
It was the second wedding for Nicole Kidman. Her adopted children with former husband Tom Cruise attended the wedding with daughter Isabella, 13, acting as bridesmaid and son Connor, 11, usher.
Sydney newspapers said about 230 family and friends including Naomi Watts, Hugh Jackman with his wife Deborra-Lee Furness, director Baz Luhrmann, Russell Crowe, News Corporation chairman and chief executive Rupert Murdoch and his wife Wendi Deng, and Lachlan and Sarah Murdoch attended the service which was presided over by Father Paul Coleman, a long-time Kidman family friend.
Hugh Jackman sang Peter Allen's Tenterfield Saddler, Neil Finn sang the Crowded House song Fall at Your Feet, while Urban himself serenaded Kidman with one of his own songs, Making Memories of Us, which ends with the lyrics:
And I'm gonna love you like nobody loves you
And I'll earn your trust makin' memories of us.
The pealing of wedding bells at 6.25pm signalled the couple had become husband and wife.
The couple issued an official portrait, along with a brief statement: "We just want to thank everyone in Australia and around the world who have sent us their warm wishes."
The couple honeymooned in Tahiti.